Russian Spelling Rules
Russian Grammar



Russian Spelling Rules

Here are the so called Russian spelling rules. They are just used to make pronounciation of a word clean when soft consonants might make this difficult. Generally, you will notice that the consonants these rules apply to are the consonants that don't exist in English.

Spelling Rule 1: Ы - И

Never write the letter "Ы" after the letters 'Г, К, Х, Ж, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use "И"

Spelling Rule 2: unstressed O - E

Never write an unstressed "O" after the letters 'Ж, Ч, Ш, Щ, Ц' instead use "E"

Spelling Rule 3: Я - А

Never write the letter "Я" after the letters 'Г, К, Х, Ж, Ч, Ш, Щ, Ц' instead use "А"

Spelling Rule 4: Ю - У

Never write the letter "Ю" after the letters 'Г, К, Х, Ж, Ч, Ш, Щ, Ц' instead use "У"

Consonant Mutation

There are times when the last consonants of words are changed when the word's ending is changed. Again this is to make them easier to pronounce. When consonant mutation occurs here are the consonant that change.

п - пл
б - бл
ф - фл
в - вл
м - мл
т - ч
к - ч
д - ж
з - ж
г - ж
с - ш
х - ш
ст - щ
ск - щ

Remember that the spelling rules may apply to the vowels that follow.

You will often see consonant mutation take place when conjugating verbs. In particular the 1st person singular, but there are also other times it's used. Here are a couple of examples.

Видеть - Вижу (see)
Любить - Люблю (love)
Сказать - Скажу (say)

There is a detailed discussion of this concept at this external link.

Recommended Books For Learning Russian

A Comprehensive Russian Grammar - A great reference on Russian grammar.

The New Penguin Russian Course: A Complete Course for Beginners - Probably the best course in a book.

The Big Silver Book of Russian Verbs - A great reference book of conjugated Russian verbs.

Russian Learners' Dictionary: 10,000 Russian Words in Frequency Order - A simple but powerful concept. Expand your vocabulary by learning the most used words first.