Russian Lessons .Net

The Instrumental Case
Russian Grammar


Russian Instrumental Case (With, By)

In Russian, the instrumental case is used to indicate how something is done. In English we commonly use the words "by" or "with" to do this. You would use the instrumental in a sentence like "we went there by car". Refer to Lesson 14 - Instrumental Case for more detailed information.

Forming the Russian Instrumental Case

Masculine Nouns:

1. All consonants, add “ом”. Except...
2. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”, “ц”, “ч”, “ш” or “щ”, then add “ем”. (This is to comply with the spelling rules)
3. Replace “й”, with “ем”, if stressed “ём”.
4. Replace “ь”, add “ем”, if stressed “ём”.

Feminine Nouns:

1. Replace “а” with “ой” (or rarely “ою”). Except...
2. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”, “ц”, “ч”, “ш” or “щ”, replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules)
3. Replace “я” with “ей”, if stressed “ёй”.
4. Replace “ь” with “ью”.

Neuter Nouns:

1. Add “м”

The phrase "if stressed" in this case, means if the end of the word is stressed.

The exceptions for “ж”, “ц”, “ч”, “ш” or “щ” are to comply with the spelling rules.

Plurals - Russian Instrumental Case

Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and...
1. All consonants, add "ами".
2. Replace "а", "о" with "ами".
3. Otherwise replace with "ями"

Exceptions: дочь - дочерьми (daughters), ребёнок - детьми (children), человек - людьми (people)

Pronouns - Instrumental Case

Мной - Me

Тобой - You

Им - Him

Ей - Her

Им - It

Нами - Us

Вами - You (plural)

Ими - Them