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Russian History - Российская история
Russia, no doubt, is a country with a rich history. There are many glorious and heroic events. Of course there are disputable moments too. Let’s try to mention the main stages in development of the Russian state and have a look at the brightest historical events.
First the centre of Russia was a city Kiev which is now the capital of Ukraine. That is why the state was called Kiev Russia and was founded in 862. That year variag prince Riurik subordinating all Russian lands later was invited to rule in Novgorod.
There are lots of versions why the state was called “Rus”. Some people consider that the word “Rus” formed from the name of the river Ros where Slavonic tribes polians lived. Other interesting version is that “Rus” comes from “rusiy” – the way they call light-haired people here.
Before the formation of Kiev Russia there lived several Slavonic peoples. Their religion was paganism. Russia became Christian in 988. Christianity acceptance in Russia is connected with the rule of Valdimir Sviatoslavich who had chosen it among the existing religions of that period.
XI-XIII centuries are familiar as a period of feudal dissociation in Russia. Princes not wishing to share their power with anyone preferred to get in their possession less territory but to rule it themselves. Besides after the death of a prince his inheritance was shared among his sons. As a consequence the state was breaking up into smaller size princedoms.
Later in XIII-XVI there was the centralization of Russia. This was complicated with Mongol-Tatar invasion. Mongol khans controlled the business of princes. Moreover khans stimulated conflicts between princes so that no to let their integration and strengthening. But in the end Russia managed to integrate. And now the centre of the Russian state became Moscow mostly due to smart politics of Ivan Katila and other Moscow princes.
In 1480 Russia managed to finally free from Mongol-Tatar Yoke which had lasted for 240 years.
Ivan IV the Awesome (Ivan the Terrible) was a bright ruler. This tsar stood out by his cruelty and love of power. Once he killed his older son in anger. In the country history he also left a step. Ivan the Awesome divided the population on oprichnics and zemskiys. Oprichnics were officially considered the defenders of the country and tsar power. They were allowed to do practically everything. They got land and people to use, robbed, destroyed, and killed. Zemskiys had to suffer all that on them. After the reign of Ivan the Awesome who didn’t leave worthy successors there comes the Vague time in Russia. The fight for power is characteristic for that period and at the end of it the dynasty of the Romanovs replaced the dynasty of the Rurikoviches.
Big contribution to Russian development was made by Peter I the Great. Peter I became the founder of the country’s navy. The emperor lived some time in Holland where nobody knew about his origin. So under the look of ordinary worker he learnt to build ships. In Russia they say that Peter I had cut through the window to Europe. Before his reign Russia really was in isolation from other European Countries. Peter the Great made all that was possible to shorten the existing distance. Big attention he paid to behavior manners which were in a little amount in Russia. Besides he made all men serving at court shave beards. Also his merit is building the wonderful Saint-Petersburg and many other cities.
The important turn of Russian history became Revolutions of XX century, the capture of power and going to socialism. No doubt the time of socialism is one of the most famous periods. It still challenges lots of discussions among historians. All took place here - cruelty, fight for power, liquidation of worthy and smart people in a fear to loose it, deficits and also great victories, scientific discoveries, the coming of a quieter and safer life.
Russian history contains lots of heroic victories. On of them was the victory over Napoleon Bonaparte in 1812. This was which is called the Fatherland one first consisted of permanent defeats for Russian soldiers. The decision to leave Moscow was made. Fortunately Russian armies beat the French and took back their territories. And the end of the war notably raised the authority of Russia among European countries.
Russia was a participant of the First and the Second World Wars. The ending of these wars caused alot of suffering. They don’t remember so often about the results of World War I, it has become a rigorous part of the past. But the results of the Great Fatherland War – the period of Russian participation in it is still discussed. There are some people left who took part in the battles. Lots of stories about the front heroes have been kept.
Socialism had a great influence on present condition of Russia. We can see its rests in economics, politics, art, attitude to religion and other spheres of society life. And that’s clear because the years of working ideology can’t go without any step. The entire world knows the names of Soviet Union leaders like Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev, and Leonid Brezhnev. Each of them carried his contribution to Russian history.
There was the Reorganization in Russia by Mikhail Gorbachev from 1985 till 1991. Its results also reflected strongly on the present condition of Russia.
Today some stability seems to have come to Russia. People are tired of the radical turns that Russian history is filled with. Though Russia is an unpredictable country. So what will be later? We’ll see.Show in Russian and English
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