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Globalization - Глобализация
The processes of globalization are constant and even irreversible today. We can observe their results in all spheres of people’s life. If spite of that the questions of globalization invoke more and more discussions.
So how can we explain what globalization is? There are lots of its definitions. For some people globalization is associated with erasing of broads between countries, simplifying and speedup of making bargains. For others it’s creating, development and spreading of unified culture and values. Generalizing different opinions we can note that globalization is a condition when the entire world functions as a single system and each country makes own and special contribution into its work.
Of course it’s impossible to define uniquely whether globalization is good or bad. It has lots of supporters and opponents. Let’s have a look at the influence of this process on different aspects of modern life and try to note c0its positive and negative sides.
First globalization has a great influence on state economics. The appearance of multinationals is one of its consequences. Today all the world knows lots of different brands. Wherever you are, you’ll more likely have an opportunity to eat at a fast-food restaurant MacDonald’s. You can wash down your dinner with Coca Cola or Lipton tea. As you see products of multinationals is offered in every country practically. These firms offer a great amount of working places. Corporations are engaged in charity sometimes.
But at the time the multinationals prosper little firms often incur losses. Actually it’s sometimes very difficult to resist in competition with worldly recognized companies. As a result there is some aggregation and concentration of capitals in the hands of multinationals’ leaders. Though there is a question if it’s that bad? The business of such companies is quiet stable; therefore it promotes in some ways the installation of stable economical relationships and economical growth.
Another one peculiarity of globalization is speedup of life rhythm. There is an impression that distances among countries shorten. Today the trips for a couple of days on hundreds of kilometers have become a norm. And if it was considered to be a great distance then now it’s not a problem. From the other side such things condition increases the opportunities of emigrants wishing to leave their country to live in another one. There is a new problem with this moment. It’s a “brain drain” problem. Some countries loose their highly specialized specialists in the end, and the costs for their education become ineffective for the state. Though for the side accepting professionals it’s quiet favorably.
Cultural peculiarities change with globalization too. They unify in some ways. Besides the mutual penetration of cultures and their exchange take place. For example being in Russia you can find Chinese, Japanese, Georgian, French and many other restaurants. With such means the inhabitants of one country get an opportunity to get acquainted with national peculiarities of other states. At the same time young generation is under big influence of American culture which appears in modern cinema, music etc.
But there is a negative side here. Unfortunately preferring unified world culture we sometimes forget about our own one. Traditions and customs are being lost. The youth stops to be interested in them. Besides less attention is paid to the development of the country culture in its own unique destination.
Also there are lots of discussions if it worth regulating the business of multinationals and in what degree the state has a right to interfere with it. Big companies open subsidiaries and representations all over the world. But ever country has its own laws which often differ from those working abroad. That is why it’s important for company subsidiaries to function in coordination with those normative acts which are installed in this state.
The world economics theory proves that the most effective condition is achieved on an open market. But unfortunately the total world effectiveness is estimated here. Speaking of one country the conclusions can be quiet the opposite. Sometimes there is a decrease of profits when branches which are not so well developed as in other countries come to an open market. These branches incur losses and even stop functioning in the end. And for the whole state that means a partly loss of independence from foreign suppliers. Though developed countries win here of course. They increase the sphere of their influence and enlarge the areas of their markets.
The consequence of globalization is appearance of a flock of different international organizations which try to collaterally solve economical, political, and ethical and many other problems. Though here the extent of countries’ influence on making decisions often differ.
And the governments must carry on competent international politics. Each state needs in interaction with other countries. But they should open the broads and merge with the world in the degree when the state can worthy compete with other participants of the world market.Show in Russian and English
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